The THO Community of 54 Ethnic groups in Vietnam

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   The THO have a population of more than 76,191 inhabitants living in Thuong Xuan District of Thanh Hoa Province and the western part of Nghe An Province. Their local subgroups are Keo, Mon, Cuol, Ho, Song Con, Nhu Xuan, Tay Poong, and Dar Lai. The THO language belongs to the Viet-Muong group.

    Apart from cultivating flood fields, the THO also grow rice and subsidiary crops on milpas. In rice cultivation, they often dig holes to sow seeds or scatter seeds over the fields, then use ploughs and harrows to fill up the soil. Hemp is grown primarily for fibers to make daily items such as bags, nets, hammocks, hunting and fishing nets. Fish, birds and animals are an important source of foodstuffs of the THO. They are very experienced in hunting and fishing. Besides forests provide various kinds of vegetable, fruit and roots for the THO’s daly meal and for their survival during crop failures. At present hunting and gathering are no longer carried out.

    Formerly, the THO lived in houses on stilts. But now they prefer houses built on the ground. The THO do not engage in doth weaving in some regions. THO attire is similar to the Kinh farmers’ dress In the first half of the 20th century. Tho women also buy skirts from the Thai and the Lao. As a habit a square of white doth serves as female headdress.

    In a THO village, close relationships and mutual assistance have existed for a very long time. According to ancient customs lands forests hills streams and mountains are collectively owned by all villagers who are free to manage and exploit as long as they live in the visage.

    The THO young boys and girls enjoy considerable freedom through the custom known as “ngủ mái“. They lie and have heart-to-heart talks with each other. In the course of these nocturnal parties boys and girls will find their sweetheart. For marriage, the boy’s family must spend a lot of money and before the wedding ceremony, the boy has to work many days for his future parents-in-law.

    Previously, funerals of the THO manifested many unique characters.

    The coffin is a hollowed-out tree trunk. The deceased is burled lying in a downstream direction.

    The THO worship innumerable genies, spirits and the predecessors who had contributions to clearing land, building the village, or fighting against enemies. Each village has places for worship. Every year, the most important ceremony called “Going to the fields” begins a new production cycle, then ceremonies are held for new rice and the end of a rice crop. The THO believe in the existence of man’s wits, so when children are ill, a rite worshipping the Goddess of childbirth.

     In the past the THO possessed a number of proverbs, folk songs, puzzles, ancient tales and child songs. But now these are gradually disappeared.

Tho's house - holylandvietnamstudies.com
THO’s house on stilts in Nghe An province (Source: VNA Publishers)

SEE MORE:
◊  The COMMUNITY of 54 ETHNIC GROUPS in Vietnam – Section 1.
◊  The BA NA Community of 54 Ethnic groups in Vietnam.
◊  The BO Y Community of 54 Ethnic groups in Vietnam.
◊  The BRAU Community of 54 Ethnic groups in Vietnam.
◊  The BRU-VAN KIEU Community of 54 Ethnic groups in Vietnam.
◊  The CHO RO Community of 54 Ethnic groups in Vietnam.
◊  The CO HO Community of 54 Ethnic groups in Vietnam.
◊  The CONG Community of 54 Ethnic groups in Vietnam.
◊  The CHUT Community of 54 Ethnic groups in Vietnam.
◊  The CHU RU Community of 54 Ethnic groups in Vietnam.
◊  The CHAM Community of 54 Ethnic groups in Vietnam.
◊  The DAO Community of 54 Ethnic groups in Vietnam.
◊  The GIAY Community of 54 Ethnic groups in Vietnam.
◊  Vietnamese version (vi-VersiGoo): CONG DONG 54 Dan toc Viet Nam – Phan 1.
◊  Vietnamese version (vi-VersiGoo) with Web-Voice (Web-Audio):  Nguoi BA NA  trong Cong dong 54 Dan toc anh em o Viet Nam.
◊  Vietnamese version (vi-VersiGoo) with Web-Voice (Web-Audio):  Nguoi BO Y trong Cong dong 54 Dan toc anh em o Viet Nam.
◊  Vietnamese version (vi-VersiGoo) with Web-Voice (Web-Audio):  Nguoi BRAU trong Cong dong 54 Dan toc anh em o Viet Nam.
◊  Vietnamese version (vi-VersiGoo) with Web-Voice (Web-Audio):  Nguoi BRU-VAN KIEU  trong Cong dong 54 Dan toc anh em o Viet Nam.
◊  Vietnamese version (vi-VersiGoo) with Web-Voice (Web-Audio):  Nguoi CHO RO trong Cong dong 54 Dan toc anh em o Viet Nam.
◊  Vietnamese version (vi-VersiGoo) with Web-Voice (Web-Audio):  Nguoi CHAM trong Cong dong 54 Dan toc anh em o Viet Nam.
◊  Vietnamese version (vi-VersiGoo) with Web-Voice (Web-Audio):  Nguoi CHU RU trong Cong dong 54 Dan toc anh em o Viet Nam.
◊  Vietnamese version (vi-VersiGoo) with Web-Voice (Web-Audio):  Nguoi CHUT trong Cong dong 54 Dan toc anh em o Viet Nam.
◊  Vietnamese version (vi-VersiGoo) with Web-Voice (Web-Audio):  Nguoi CONG trong Cong dong 54 Dan toc anh em o Viet Nam.
◊  Vietnamese version (vi-VersiGoo) with Web-Voice (Web-Audio):  Nguoi DAO trong Cong dong 54 Dan toc anh em o Viet Nam.
◊  Vietnamese version (vi-VersiGoo) with Web-Voice (Web-Audio):  Nguoi GIAY trong Cong dong 54 Dan toc anh em o Viet Nam.
◊  Vietnamese version (vi-VersiGoo) with Web-Voice (Web-Audio):  Nguoi GIA RAI trong Cong dong 54 Dan toc anh em o Viet Nam.
◊  Vietnamese version (vi-VersiGoo) with Web-Voice (Web-Audio):  Nguoi HOA trong Cong dong 54 Dan toc anh em o Viet Nam.
◊  Vietnamese version (vi-VersiGoo) with Web-Voice (Web-Audio):  Nguoi KHANG trong Cong dong 54 Dan toc anh em o Viet Nam.
◊  Vietnamese version (vi-VersiGoo) with Web-Voice (Web-Audio):  Nguoi KHMER trong Cong dong 54 Dan toc anh em o Viet Nam.
◊  etc.

BAN TU THU
09 /2020

NOTES:
1 : … updating…

NOTE:
◊  Source & Images:  54 Ethnic Groups in Vietnam, Thong Tan Publishers, 2008.
◊ All citations and italic textes has been set by Ban Tu Thu – thanhdiavietnamhoc.com

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