Timeline of VIETNAMESE HISTORY – Section 1 (# 2500 years)

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    This is a timeline of Vietnamese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Vietnam and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see Vietnam History.

     The timeline of Vietnam history lasts more than 2500 years, including the civilized periods of Soi Nhu, Nguom, Son Vi, Hoa Binh, Bac Son, Quynh Van, Cai Beo, Da But, Phung Nguyen, Dong Dau, Dong Son, Go Mun, etc … and the Hung King’s dynasties (Kinh Duong Vuong, Lac Long Quan, Hung Due Vuong, An Duong Vuong, etc.)… and the first Northern period…

Prehistory /Millennia

250th ~ 40th century BC

25000 BC:  The Soi Nhụ culture appeared.
23000 BC:  The Ngườm culture appeared.
20000 BC:  The Sơn Vi culture appeared in modern Lâm Thao District.
12000 BC:  Hoabinhian artifacts began to be produced in Northern Vietnam.
12000 BC:  The Bắc Sơn culture appeared.
8000 BC:    The Quỳnh Văn culture appeared.
5000 BC:    The Cái Bèo culture appeared.1
4000 BC:   The first rice cultivation of which evidence survives in modern Vietnam took place.The Đa Bút culture appeared in what is now Vĩnh Lộc District. Wet rice was cultivated in the Red River Delta.3

30th century BC

… Updating…

29th century BC

2879 BC:  Kinh Dương Vương unified all vassal states in his territory into the single state of Xích Quỷ, which he ruled as Hùng king from the capital at Phong Châu.4

2879 BC:  Kinh Dương Vương sponsored the development of martial arts in Xích Quỷ.5

28th century BC

2793 BC:  Kinh Dương Vương was succeeded as Hùng king of Xích Quỷ, since renamed Văn Lang, by his son Lạc Long Quân.

27th century BC

2793 BC:  The lunar calendar came into use in Văn Lang.6

26th century BC

2524 BC:  The first Hùng king of the Cấn line came to power in Văn Lang.

25th century BC

2500 BC:  The Hùng king ordered an increase in rice cultivation.7

24th century BC

… Updating…

23th century BC

2253 BC:  The last Hùng king of the Cấn line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
2252 BC:  The first Hùng king of the Chấn line came to power in Văn Lang.

22th century BC

2000 BC:  The earliest surviving artifacts indicating use of the Vietnamese calendar appeared.8

21th century BC

… Updating…

20th century BC

2000 BC:  The Phùng Nguyên culture appeared.
1913 BC:  The last Hùng king of the Chấn line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
1912 BC:  The first Hùng king of the Tốn line came to power in Văn Lang.

19th century BC

… Updating…

17th century BC

1700 BC: Burial rituals and tomb building came into practice.9
1631 BC:  The first Hùng king of the Khôn line came to power in Văn Lang.

16th century BC

… Updating…

15th century BC

1500 BC:  The Đồng Đậu culture appeared.10 A sophisticated agricultural society developed on the Vietnamese coast.11
1432 BC:  The last Hùng king of the Khôn line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
1431 BC:  The first Hùng king of the Đoài line came to power in Văn Lang.

14th century BC

1331 BC:  The first Hùng king of the Giáp line came to power in Văn Lang.

13th century BC

1251 BC:  The first Hùng king of the Ất line came to power in Văn Lang.

12th century BC

1200 BC:  The Lạc Việt discovered bronze casting.12 Irrigation13 was first used in rice cultivation in the plains of the Ma and Red Rivers.13
1162 BC:  The last Hùng king of the Ất line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
1161 BC:  The first Hùng king of the Bính line came to power in Văn Lang.

11th century BC

1100 BC:  The Gò Mun culture appeared.14
1055 BC – The last Hùng king of the Bính line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
1054 BC:  The first Hùng king of the Đinh line came to power in Văn Lang.

10th century BC

1000 BC:  The Đông Sơn culture appeared in the valley of the Red River. Copper casting began to be used in Văn Lang in the manufacture of brass tools, weapons, and ornaments. The population of Văn Lang reached one million7 The Lạc Việt developed observational astronomy.15
969 BC:  The last Hùng king of the Đinh line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
968 BC:  The first Hùng king of the Mậu line came to power in Văn Lang.

9th century BC

853 BC:  The first Hùng king of the Kỷ line came to power in Văn Lang.

8th century BC

853 BC:  The first Hùng king of the Canh line came to power in Văn Lang.

7th century BC

700 BC:  Refugees from the increasingly fragile Zhou dynasty began to arrive in the Red River Delta.16
661 BC:  The last Hùng king of the Canh line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
660 BC:  The first Hùng king of the Tân line came to power in Văn Lang.

5th century BC

500 BC:  The earliest artifacts suggesting the celebration of Tết appeared18,19
470 BC:  King Goujian of Yue sent messengers to Văn Lang demanding submission.20 The last Hùng king of the Nhâm line ended his rule of Văn Lang.
408 BC:  Hùng Duệ Vương became Hùng king of Văn Lang.

4th century BC

400 BC:  A mass migration of refugees to the Red River Delta took place due to the ongoing collapse of the Zhou dynasty.16

3th century BC

300 BC:  Buddhist missionaries from India arrived in Văn Lang.21 The Âu Việt settled across the northern border of Văn Lang and opened trade relations with the Lạc Việt.22

257 BC:  Thục Phán, ruler of the Âu Việt, invaded and conquered Văn Lang. He renamed the country Âu Lạc and took the regnal name An Dương Vương, ruling as king from Cổ Loa Citadel.

250 BC:  The Hùng Temple was built 23
210 BC:  The Battle of Tiên Du took place.4

207 BC:  The Qin general Zhao Tuo captured Cổ Loa Citadel. An Dương Vương fled and later committed suicide. Zhao Tuo divided the territory under his control into the commanderies of Jiaozhi and Jiuzhen.24

206 BC:  The warlord Xiang Yu led an army into the Qin capital Xianyang, burned the Epang Palace and killed the Qin emperor Ziying and the royal family.

203 BC:  Zhao Tuo declared himself king of Nanyue, with his capital in modern Panyu District. Nanyue conquered Guilin.

2th century BC

198 BC:  Two delegates were assigned to oversee the affairs of Jiaozhi and Jiuzhen.24

196 BC:  The Han official Lu Jia gave Zhao Tuo a seal recognizing him as king of Nanyue in exchange for his nominal submission to the Han emperor.25

183 BC:  Empress Lü Zhi, the Han empress dowager and regent for her grandson Emperor Houshao of Han, ordered a trade blockade of Nanyue. Zhao Tuo sacked the Han capital Chang’an.26 The nearby polities of Minyue, Yelang and Tongshi declared their allegiance to Nanyue. A punitive Han invasion of Nanyue stalled after much of the invading army fell to illness.26

181 BC:  A punitive Han invasion of Nanyue stalled after much of the invading army fell to illness.26
180 BC:  Lü Zhi died. Nanyue conquered some Han territory near the border.

179 BC:  In exchange for the restoration of his family in modern Zhengding County and the withdrawal of Han forces from the Nanyue border, Zhao Tuo renounced the title emperor and pledged submission to the Han dynasty. Luy Lẩu was founded.27. Zhao Tuo died. He was succeeded as king of Nanyue by his grandson Zhao Mo.

135 BC:  A border war took place between Nanyue and Minyue.26
122 BC:  Zhao Mo died. He was succeeded as king of Nanyue by his eldest son Zhao Yingqi.

118 BC:  Confucian ideas were introduced to Nanyue.28
115 BC:  Zhao Yingqi died. He was succeeded by his son Zhao Xing.

112 BC:  Lü Jia, the prime minister of Nanyue and a Lạc Việt chief, killed Zhao Xing and his Han Chinese mother Juishi after the latter agreed to full submission to the Han dynasty in order to preserve her authority in Nanyue. He declared Zhao Xing‘s elder brother Zhao Jiande king.

111 BC:  Han conquest of Nanyue: Han forces invaded Nanyue. Zhao Jiande was captured in flight and executed. The zhou of Jiaozhou was organized on the territory of the defunct Nanyue and divided into the commanderies of Nanhai, Cangwu, Yulin, Jiaozhi, Hepu, Zhuya, Taner , and Jiuzhen.29 Shi Dai was appointed its governor. Tây Vu Vương was assassinated by his assistant Hoàng Đồng.33

1st century BC

86 BC:  Shi Dai‘s rule of Jiaozhou ended.
48 BC:  The commandery of Rinan in Jiaozhou was organized south of the Hoành Sơn Range.34,35

NOTES:
1. Importance of cultural history. Archived 24 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2014-04-23.
2. Dao, 1985.
3. “Vietnam Notebook: Early History, Nam Viet to Gia Long”. Parallel Narratives. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
4. Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư. Issue 1.
5. Iwona Czerwinska Pawluk and Walery Zukow, p. 21.
6. Mc Leod, Mark W.; Dieu, Nguyen Thi; Nguyen, Thi Dieu (2001). Culture and Customs of Vietnam. ISBN 9780313304859. Archived from the original on 10 June 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
7. “Liên Đoàn Lao Động Bình Định”. Archived from the original on 25 December 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
8. Ancient calendar unearthed. Archived 3 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
9. Archaeologists unearth 3,200-year-old woman in Vietnam. Archived 24 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2013-12-22.
10. “Cồ Việt- Tri Thức Việt”. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
11. “Vietnam – History“. Archived 3 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2013-12-14.
12. “Vietnam – History”. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
13. “Vietnamese History: A Chronological Outline – Asia for Educators – Columbia University”. Archived from the original on 10 May 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
14. “Gò Mun culture”. Archived from the original on 19 June 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
15. World Beat: Vietnam. Archived 2 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Retrieve 2014-01-01.
16. Hauptly, 1985, 4.
17. Tarling, p. 121.
18. Mc Crum, Mark (April 2008). Going Dutch in Beijing. ISBN 9781429941402. Archived from the original on 12 June 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
19. Jeffrey, Laura S. (August 2007). Celebrate Tet. ISBN 9780766027756. Archived from the original on 12 June 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
20. “Âu Lạc under An Dương Vương”. Archived from the original on 22 April 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
21. Nguyễn Tài Thư (2008), p.13 Archived 22 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
22. West, Barbara A. (19 May 2010). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. ISBN 9781438119137. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
23. Death Anniversary of the Hùng kings. Archived 19 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2013-11-30.
24. Vu Dinh Dinh. “Cochinchina: Reassessment of the Origin and Use of a Westernized Place Name”. Archived 25 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. The Writers Post, vol. 9, Jan & Jul 2007.
25. Taylor, 1991, p. 24.
26. “Triệu Dynasty (207 – 111 BC)”. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
27. Nguyễn Tài Thư (2008), p.20. Archived 10 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
28. Doh Chull Shin, p. 34.
29. Ban Biao; Ban Gu; Ban Zhao. “地理志” [Treatise on geography]. Book of Han (in Chinese). Volume 28. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
30. “カードローンRoom”. Archived from the original on 9 January 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
31. “Vương Hùng. docx”. Archived from the original on 7 April 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
32. “111 BC: Uprising shakes the rule of the Triệu Dynasty”. Archived from the original on 14 June 2013. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
33. Taylor, 1991, p. 29.
34. “Bắc Thuộc Và Chống Bắc Thuộc: Những Dấu Tích Văn Hóa Vật Chất (Gs.Ts Nguyễn Quang Ngọc)”. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
35. Taylor, 1991, p. 30.

BAN TU THU
05 /2020

NOTE:
◊  Source: wikipedia.org
◊  Image – source: Lich su Vietnam bang tranh. Tran Bach Dang. Sepia image has been set by BTT.
◊  Timeline of VIETNAMESE HISTORY – Section 2.

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